The concept of normalization was associated with the peace process with Israelis, in both, Arab and Palestinian context. The term has different interpretations depending on context, and it becomes more complex when referring to a direct relationship between the colonized and their colonizers in the context of the settler colonialism in Palestine, therefore, it is a highly controversial concept. The political debates over the concept, mostly describe it as a term that refers to recognizing the state of Israel and conducting normal relations with Israelis. The term ‘normalization’ has been used by Michel Foucault in describing the processes of psychological dominance imposed by an authority’s penal role in modern societies and its influence on human groups. One of the most prominent purposes of “Post-modern” theories is to resist the colonial dominant narratives by discovering the Scattered Historical Contingencies. Given this premise, this paper has the following objectives: To offer a critical, deconstructivist analysis for the concept of normalization in the context of the settler-colonial regime, and to study the genealogies of this concept (Généalogie) by investigating the relevant historical hypotheses: 1) there are historical differences regarding the appearance of the expression phonologically and its practice (political, official, and public practice); and 2) there are historical epistemological transformations that took place with regards to Arabs’ perceptions, and the political reflection, which shaped the image and the relationship with the colonizer, due to the practice of the concept normalization in politics. I will analyse these historical hypotheses by using a synthesis of settler colonial theoretical frameworks and those of socio-political psychology such as Frantz Fanon’s theoretical contributions, to investigate political discourse, including discourse in peace treaties, politics related to the Palestinian and Arab national identities, and the relevant political discourses used by politicians who reject normalization.
Keywords: Normalization, Settler colonialism, Intergroup relations, History, National identity
Abdel Nasser, G. (1954). The Philosophy of Revolution (5th ed.). Egypt: Dar Al-Maaref.
Agreement on Normalization. (1996). Retrieved May 29, 2019, from https://peacemaker.un.org/croatiaserbia-normalizationagreement96
Agamben, G. (1995a). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Agamben, G. (1995b). “We refugees”. Symposium, 49(2), 114-119.
Albzour, M. (2015). The Palestinian leftist movement: Between political reality and cultural heritage. Contemporary Arab Affairs, 8, 339–350. https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2015.1055896
Albzour, M. (2017). The concept of normalization between the duality of rejection and acceptance. Jadal Journal of Mada Al-Carmel, (31), 1–9.
Albzour, M., Penic, S., Nasser, R., & Green, E. G. T. (2019). Support for ‘Normalization’ of relations between Palestinians and Israelis, and how it relates to contact and resistance in the West Bank. Journal of Social and Political Psychology.
Al-Hindi, H. (2012). The Arab National Movement in the 20c. Beirut: Centre for Arab Unity Studies.
Alloush, I. (2013). When is the visit of Palestine, normalization with the Zionest enemy? Retrieved May 30, 2019, from http://www.freearabvoice.org/?p=2698
Arab League summit. (2019). Retrieved May 29, 2019, from http://arableaguesummit2013.qatarconferences.org/arabic/arab-league.html
Augoustinos, M. (2013). Discourse analysis in psychology: What’s in a name? Qualitative Research in Psychology, 10(3), 244–248.
Austin, H. (February 15, 2014). “Syria’s American born rebels pose national security ‘nightmare.’” NBC News. http://www.nbcnews.com/news/mideast/syrias-american-born-rebels-pose-national-security-nightmare-n29451.
Awwad, Muhsin. (1988). Israeli strategy to normalize relations with Arab countries. Beirut: Center of Arab Unity Studies.
Awwad, Muhsin, Salem, M., & Obeed, A. (2007). The Resistance of Normalization, Thirty years of Confrontation. Beirut: Center of Arab Unity Studies.
Bar-Tal, D. (2000). From intractable conflict through conflict resolution to reconciliation: Psychological analysis. Political Psychology, 21(2), 351–365.
Bhabha, H. K. (2012). The Location of Culture. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203820551
Committee for the Defence of Arab culture-Cairo. (1993). From Resistance of normalization to confronting domination. Amman: Jordanian Writers Association publications.
Bhabha, H. (1996). “Culture’s In-Between.” In: Hall, St. and du Gay, P. eds 1996. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage. Pp. 53-60.
Cartner, J. M. (2009). Representing the refugee: Rhetoric, discourse and the public agenda (Master’s thesis). University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, WA.
Crowley, Una (2009) Genealogy, method. In: International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Elsevier, pp. 341-344.
Database, E. C. F. (n.d.). 1st Arab League Summit in Cairo (January 1964). Retrieved May 29, 2019, from https://ecf.org.il/issues/issue/197
Doise, W., & Mapstone, E. T. (1986). Levels of explanation in social psychology. Cambridge University Press.
Elmessiri, A. W. (1999). Jews and Zionism Encyclopedia. Cairo: Dar Alshorouq.
Fanon, F. (1952). Black skin, white masks, trans. R. Philcox. Grove Press, New York.
Fanon, F. (1963). The Wretched of the Earth, trans. Richard Philcox (New York: Grove, 2004), 239.
Fanon, F. (2004). Black Skin White Masks. Beirut: Dar Al-Farabi.
Fanon, F. (2008). Black skin, white masks. Grove press.
Foucault, M. (1970). The archaeology of knowledge. Information (International Social Science Council), 9(1), 175–185.
Foucault, M. (1981). The order of discourse in R. Young (ed.) Untying the text: A post-structuralist reader. London, Routledge, 48, 78.
Nietzsche, Genealogy, History · Michel Foucault. In John Richardson & Brian Leiter (eds.), Nietzsche. Oxford University Press. pp. (139-164) (1978).
Foucault, M. (1991). The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality. University of Chicago Press.
Gramsci, A. (1978). Selections from political writings (1921-1926) (Vol. 1). International Publishers.
Hook, D. (2005). A critical psychology of the postcolonial. Theory & Psychology, 15(4), 475–503.
Hopkins, N., Reicher, S., & Levine, M. (1997). On the parallels between social cognition and the ‘new racism.’ British Journal of Social Psychology, 36(3), 305–329.
Hughes, M., & Kroehler, C. J. (2009). Sociology: The core (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Institute for Palestine Studies. (1978). Camp David and its risks. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies.
Kamel, M. (1984). The Lost Peace in Camp David Accords. Syria: Dar Talas.
Kautharani, W. (1995). The Middle East and Cultural Normalization with Israel: Historical Counting and Current Problems. Journal of Palestine Studies, 23(6), 3–21.
Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society (Vol. 111). Chicago University of Chicago Press.
Mi’Ari, M. (1999). Attitudes of Palestinians toward Normalization with Israel. Journal of Peace Research, 36(3), 339–348.
Mohamed, M. (1979, March 26). Egypt-Israel peace treaty/ “Camp David”—Text/Non-UN document. Retrieved May 29, 2019, from Question of Palestine website: https://www.un.org/unispal/document/egypt-israel-peace-treatyt-camp-david-text-non-un-document/
Nietzsche, F. W. (1967). The will to power. Vintage.
Nofal, A. (2010). Israel’s role in the fragmentation of the Arab world. Beirut: Alzaytouna Studies Center.
O’Regan, J. P., & Betzel, A. (2016). 19 Critical Discourse Analysis: A Sample Study of Extremism. Research Methods in Intercultural Communication, 281.
Parker, I. (2013). Discourse analysis: Dimensions of critique in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 10(3), 223–239.
Paternek, M. A. (1987). Norms and normalization: Michel Foucault’s overextended panoptic machine. Human Studies, 10(1), 97–121.
Qarqar, M. (2011). Between official normalization and popular rejection of Israel. Cairo, Egypt: Cairo: Roses Island Library.
Reicher, S. (2004). The Context of Social Identity: Domination, Resistance, and Change. Political Psychology, 25(6), 921–945. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2004.00403.x
Reicher, S., Cassidy, C., Wolpert, I., Hopkins, N., & Levine, M. (2006). Saving Bulgaria’s Jews: An analysis of social identity and the mobilisation of social solidarity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(1), 49–72.
Reicher, S., Spears, R., & Haslam, S. A. (2010). The social identity approach in social psychology. Sage Identities Handbook, 45–62.
Russon, J. (2011). Self and Other in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit ‘. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 18(4), 1–18.
Samarah, A. (2011). Normalization flows in your blood. Ramallah: Orient Centre, the Working developmental and cultural studies.
Sitaraman, G., & Wuerth, I. (2014). The Normalization of Foreign Relations Law. Harv. L. Rev., 128, 1897.
Tajfel, H., Turner, J. C., Austin, W. G., & Worchel, S. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. Organizational Identity: A Reader, 56–65.
Tamboukou, M. (1999). Writing Genealogies: An exploration of Foucault’s strategies for doing research. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 20(2), 201–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/0159630990200202
The Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt—English Text. (2013). Retrieved May 29, 2019, from https://ecf.org.il/media_items/602
Tunisian President Bourguiba’s Speech in Jericho—English (1965). (2014). Retrieved May 29, 2019, from https://ecf.org.il/media_items/1217
Wodak, R., & Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis. Sage London.
Wolfe, P. (2006). Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native. Journal of Genocide Research, 8(4), 387–409.
Yaqeen, S. (2003). Normalization between the Concept and Behavior. Ramallah: The Palestinian Institution for the National Guidance.