University of Nairobi, Department of Linguistics and
Languages, Kenya, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
 Professor Emeritus, University of Nairobi, Department of Linguistics and Languages, Kenya, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ideologies are shared via language. Language on the other hand, forms the raw material for dispensing ideology since it is invested by ideology, (Fairclough, 1995:73). According to Wodak (2021), the manifestation of ideology in language is evident in metaphors as well as other forms of linguistic features like lexical meanings, presuppositions, implicatures and coherence. Ideological discourses could be political, religious, economic or social. CMT with reference to Lakoff and Johnson (1980/2003), advanced by Kovecses (2002, 2009, 2010, 2020) have been used for analysis. This paper analyses metaphors that depict the ideology of the popular Kenyan Politician Raila Odinga. His political discourse especially during general elections is characterized by metaphoric language. The key argument in this paper is that, metaphors could manifest ideologies in discourse. Findings indicate that Raila Odinga uses varied metaphors presented in four ideological concepts namely: the socio-democratic ideology; the ideology of conflicts; the savior ideology and the ideology of fear. The socio-democratic ideology projects Raila’s organization of all leaders from various political parties under one coalition that front him as the presidential candidate. The philosophy of solidarity is that all political parties and their leaders have an equal chance to proof themselves as suited for the top seat. Also, Raila projects Kenya in a socio-economic crises and he presents himself as the savior. He therefore calls himself the savior via the biblical Joshua’s metaphor. The one who successfully led the children of Israel to the land flowing with milk and honey. He also spells fear to his opponents once elected in office and he projects the ideology of fear via weather pattern metaphor. He talks of dark clouds, heavy rains and a cyclone that would spell doom for opponents. This paper is a single case study, which is extracting practical data in solving human made phenomena. It is acceptable in the social science and science disciplines. In depth verbatim data has been analyzed both at the surface and deep level to explain how metaphors manifest ideology in the contemporary Kenyan political context, (Zainal 2007; Schoch 2020).
Keywords: Election, solidarity, coalition, conflict, fear
Albert, M and Hahnel, R, (1981). Socialism, Today and Tomorrow. Boston. South End Press.
Barkins, D and Lemus, B, (2014). Rethinking the Social and Solidarity Society in Light of Community Practice. In Sustainability. Vol. 6. Issue 9, Pp.1-14
Burgers, C., Konijn, E.A and Steer, J.G (2016). Figurative Framing: Shaping Public Discourse through Metaphor, Hyperbole and Irony. In Communication Theory. ISSN 1050-3293. DOI:10.1111/Comt.12096.
Borčić, N., Kanižaj, I., & Kršul, S, (2016). Conceptual Metaphor in Political Communication. Zbornik Sveučilišta u Dubrovniku, (3), 73-94.
Djik, T.A, (2006) Politics, Ideology and Discourse. Universitat Pompeu. Barcelona. Elsevier Ltd.
Fairclough, N, (1995). Language and Power. London & New York. Routledge
Flusberg, S., Matlock, T., and Thibodeau, P, (2018). War Metaphors in Public Discourse. Article in Metaphor and Symbol. 33:1, 1-18, DOI 10.1080/10926488.2018.1407992.
Hu, X, (2010). A Study of Conceptual Metaphors in Presidential Inaugural Speeches. Thesis. Kristianstad University.
Kastning, T, (2013). Basics on Social Democracy. Accra. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Ghana.
Kress, P, (1975). American Academy of Political & Social Science. Vol. 421, Issue 1, Pp. 1-17
Kövecses, Z, (2009a). Metaphor and Poetic Creativity: A Cognitive Linguistic Account. In Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica, 1, 2, P.181-196.
Kövecses, Z. (2010). Metaphor. A Practical Introduction. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2005). Metaphor in culture. Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2013). The metaphor-metonymy relationship: correlation metaphors are based on metonymy. Metaphor and Symbol. 28:2, pp.75-88.
Kövecses, Z. (2015a). Metaphor and Emergentism. In Brian MacWhinney and William O’Grady, eds., The handbook of language emergence. John Wiley and Sons.
Kövecses, Z. (2015b). Where Metaphors Come From. Reconsidering the Role of Context in Metaphor. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2017a). A radical view of the literal-figurative distinction. In A. Benedek and Á. Veszelszki, eds., Virtual reality – Real visuality. Virtual, visual, veridical. Pp.17-28. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Kövecses, Z. (2017b). Levels of metaphor. Cognitive Linguistics, 28(2), 321-347.
Kövecses, Z. (2020). Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, G and Johnson, M, (1980). Metaphors we Live By. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, G and Johnson, M, (1996). Metaphors we Live By. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press
Steen, G.J .2011. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphors: Now New & Improved! Review of Cognitive Linguistics: 9(1) 26-64.DOI: 10.1075/RC 1.9.1035.
Lopez, P, 2018. A Comparative Study of War and Sport Metaphors in Political News Headlines. Grau d’ Estudis d’ Angles i’ Frances.
Mang’eni, L, (2023). A Metaphorical Analysis of Kenyan Politician Raila Odinga’s Political Rhetoric. (PhD Thesis) University of Nairobi. Nairobi
Mang’eni, L and Habwe, J, (2022). War Metaphors in Kenyan Political Rhetoric: A Case of Raila Odinga. Unpublished Paper.
Mang’eni, L., (2008) An Analysis Of Political Language In Kenya: A Pragmatic Analysis Of The Use Of “Change” And “Majimbo” As Concepts During The 2007 General Elections (Masters Thesis) University of Nairobi. Nairobi
Pateman, C, (1970). Participation and Democracy Theory. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press
Wodak, R, (2021). The Politics of Fear: The Shameless Normalization of Far-Right Discourse. Los Angeles. Sage Publishers.