Language discourse in curriculum development – comparative perspective from Romania, Poland and Croatia

[1] Faculty of Teacher education, University of Zagreb, Croatia, E-mail:
[2] Institute of Education, The Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw, Poland,
[3] Teacher Training Department, University of Oradea, Romania, E-mail:
[4] Institute of Education, The Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw, Poland, E-mail:


The article analyzes the language of legislation relating to the core curriculum in 3 countries: Croatia, Poland and Romania, which, freed from socialism, since the 1990s have been building their education systems in an evolutionary way. In particular, the factors of effective teaching are considered. Some other selected aspects of the education system, relevant to the implementation of the curriculum assumptions and contents will also be discussed. The research questions we posed were ‘what language is used in educational legislation for indicators for effective teaching and what is the role of the language?’  For analysis curriculum discourse language was used in comparative perspective. The research indicates the differences in the core curriculum and the language in all three countries. Understanding the context for teaching and understanding the needs of teachers and learners seem to be leading in Croatia. In Romania there is a gap between the language of the official texts and the classroom realities. The need for change of the practical aspects of teaching in the classroom becomes fundamental. While in Poland the language of the curriculum becomes more formal and subordinated to exam requirements, which not so much limits its understanding, but rather stiffens the teaching and learning process.

Keywords: curriculum development, national core/school curriculum, school curriculum in comparative perspective, curriculum in school systems, curriculum discourse language in comparative perspectivc


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Probleme majore la examenul de Română de la Evaluarea Națională, identificate într-un Raport de cercetare alarmant realizat de aceeași instituție a Ministerului Educației care face subiectele: subiecte concepute pe curriculumul care nu mai este în vigoare, cu barem de corectare care “compromite validitatea probei” prin punctaje alocate arbitrar / Plus: efectul backwash constatat oficial